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Tom Bombadil in Tengwar


"Old Tom Bombadil is a merry fellow! Bright Blue his jacket is, and his boots are yellow!"
Tom Bombadil

Tom Bombadil was a mysterious being that lived for much of the history of the world, being known in the Third Age to dwell in the valley of the Withywindle in the depths of the Old Forest, east of Buckland, and close to the dangerous Barrow-downs.

His domain was of modest size, but he seemed to possess an unequaled power over the land around his dwelling. He lived in a small house[2] with his wife, Goldberry, between the Barrow-downs and the Dingle of the Old Forest, far from any other settlement. Although seemingly benevolent, he took no open stance against the Dark Lords.

Biography[]

Origin[]

"Eldest, that's what I am... Tom remembers the first raindrop and the first acorn... He knew the dark under the stars when it was fearless - before the Dark Lord came from Outside."
Tom Bombadil (The Lord of the Rings)

The origin and nature of Tom Bombadil are unknown; however, he claimed already existed before the Dark Lord came to Arda,[3] signifying he may have been alive even before the coming of the Valar. (It is unclear whether he refers to Melkor's first or second entry into the world.) In any case, Tom is insinuated to have been the first living creature to inhabit Arda.

First & Second Ages[]

Tom and Goldberry Matěj Čadil

Goldberry meeting Tom, by Matěj Čadil

Tom eventually "left" where he had come from, and arrived in Middle-earth, which he wandered through and explored, having witnessed the emergence of the forests and the rain. While his role and nature in the First and Second ages are unknown, he may have witnessed most major events and battles. He also witnessed the reducing of the great forests that covered all Middle-earth, and perhaps of his powers.[4] The levels of his interactions with the outside world are also unclear; however, he perhaps became a folkloric figure in the traditions and legends of Elves, Dwarves, and Men.[5] As a result, he came to be known by many names during his pilgrimage: the Elves called him Iarwain (Old/young, presumably because as far as anyone remembered he had always looked much the same[6]) Ben-adar (without a father), while he was known as Orald to Men and Forn to the Dwarves.

At the end of his wanderings, Tom focused his exploration only on Eriador, making him the first to reside in the west even before the Elves moved there and the tides were folded. In this period, on his journey down the Withywindle to the Brandywine River, several of the valley's mysterious residents, including the River-spirit Goldberry (also known as the "River-woman's daughter"), the malevolent tree-spirit Old Man Willow, and the Badger-folk attempted to capture Bombadil for their own ends, but quailed at the power of Tom's voice, which defeated their enchantments and commanded them to return to their natural existence. Ultimately, Bombadil was captured and married Goldberry when she pulled Tom by his beard under the water-lilies out of mischief, but he ordered her to set him free. The next day he came to the River-woman and asked Goldberry to be his wife, and the creatures of the Old Forest (the badger-folk and other animals) attended their wedding.[7][8]

Third Age[]

"But I had forgotten Bombadil, if indeed this is still the same that walked the woods and hills long ago, and even then was older than the old. That was not then his name. Iarwain Ben-adar we called him, oldest and fatherless. But many another name he has since been given by other folk: Forn by the Dwarves, Orald by Northern Men, and other names beside. He is a strange creature..."
Elrond, The Fellowship of the Ring
Tom Bombadil Roger Garland

Sam and Frodo with Tom, by Roger Garland

It is untold at what time Tom settled into his domain outside the Old Forest, but it is known that he dwelt there when the Third Age began, seeing the rise (and fall) of Angmar and its wars that led to the Barrow-downs being inhabited by the Barrow-wights. He also saw the arrival of hobbits in the region that would become the Shire, which led him occasionally to interact with the little folk, mostly in Buckland. He eventually was named Bombadil in Bucklandish by the Bucklanders, which would become the name he adopted. Perhaps it was because of his contact with them that he had his cheerful and whimsical attitude.

A tale says that Tom is challenged by Hobbits and various Forest-folk on his journey down the Withywindle to the Brandywine river where hobbits live at Haysend, including Willow-wren, Fisher Blue, Whisker-lad, and Old Swan, but he charms them all with his voice, ending his journey at the farm of Farmer Maggot, where he drinks ale and dances with the family. At the end, the charmed birds and otters work together to bring Bombadil's boat home.[9]

At some point, he also ventured into Bree and met Barliman Butterbur, the proprietor of The Prancing Pony.

War of the Ring[]

Ted Nasmith - The Willow Man is Tamed

Old Man Willow is subdued by Tom, by Ted Nasmith

In 3018, Frodo and his company had a chance meeting with Bombadil in the Old Forest after a nearly disastrous encounter with Old Man Willow. Frodo, who had fled from the tree looking for help, enlisted Bombadil, who had been out gathering water lilies. Bombadil went immediately with Frodo to the tree and commanded it to release its prisoners, Merry and Pippin, which it immediately did. He then invited Frodo and his companions to his home, where the Hobbits had an almost dreamlike stay, feasting and making merry with Tom. In this state, Frodo rather inadvertently told Tom all about the One Ring and his quest, and when Tom asked to inspect the Ring, Frodo, without question and without any of the reluctance that tended to accompany giving the Ring to another, allowed him to. Tom then put the Ring on his finger, yet not only did he not disappear, but the Ring appeared to have no effect on him at all. After making the Ring itself vanish with a sleight-of-hand trick, he returned it to Frodo, who, slightly suspicious that it had not made Tom vanish, put it on to make sure it was the genuine Ring. Tom surprised him yet again by revealing that he could see Frodo even with the Ring on, and told Frodo to remove it, stating that his hand was fairer without it.

After two days resting and feasting at Tom's home, the Hobbits set out again, only to be captured the next day by Wights on the Barrow-downs. Fortunately, Tom had taught Frodo a magic song to call Tom to him; so Frodo sang it and Tom came to the rescue, and opened the Barrow.[3] After this, he escorted the Hobbits to the borders of his land and left them there. However, The peril of the hobbits was not over; an attack on their lives was carried out, and their ponies were set loose. The ponies apparently remembered the care they were given in the house of Tom Bombadil, and returned to stay beside Tom's own pony, Fatty Lumpkin. He returned them to Barliman Butterbur, the proprietor of The Prancing Pony. Since he had paid eighteen pence as compensation for the loss, he was now the owner of five fine ponies.[10]

Over a month later, Tom became a topic of discussion at the Council of Elrond. There, Elrond, who had apparently met Tom in times long past, reminisced about him briefly before the question was put before the Council of whether or not to give the Ring to Tom, as it appeared as though Tom may have had power over even the Ring within his lands. However, Gandalf quickly dismissed the idea, saying that rather than Tom having power over the Ring, the Ring simply had no power over Tom. He was immune to its influence, but he could not alter it.

Additionally, it was believed by Gandalf that if asked by all the Free People of the world to take the One Ring he might be willing to do so, but would not understand the reason. Gandalf believed Tom would have likely either forgot about it or thrown it away, as such things had little relevance to him. It was also mentioned that taking the Ring back to him would be impossible to accomplish without it becoming known to Sauron, and that sooner or later, Sauron would bend all his power towards Tom's realm to take the Ring back. Despite his mastery within his realm, it was assumed that Tom would not have cared or been able to keep the Ring contained to his realm.

Fourth Age[]

After the One Ring was destroyed, Gandalf spent some time with Bombadil. It is unknown how the meeting involved or what was discussed. Gandalf says, in response to Frodo's query of how well Bombadil is getting along, that he is "as well as ever", "quite untroubled" and "not much interested in anything that we have done and seen", except perhaps their encounters with the Ents. When Frodo sails into the West and leaves Middle-earth, he has what seems to him the very experience that appeared to him in the house of Bombadil in his dream of the second night.

Through two of Sam Gamgee's poems, Tom Bombadil's wandering tales would be passed on to future generations of the Hobbits through the Red Book of Westmarch.

Personality[]

"He is a strange creature."
Elrond on Bombadil in "The Council of Elrond"

Tom Bombadil was spry, with a quick, playful wit. He spoke in a rhyming whimsical way: "Hey dol! merry dol! ring a dong dillo! Ring a dong! hop along! fal lal the willow! Tom Bom, jolly Tom, Tom Bombadillo!" He had a jolly, carefree attitude, and little seemed to concern him. He sometimes referred to himself in the third person, and twice described himself in his songs as: "Bright blue his jacket is, and his boots are yellow."

Bombadil did not seem concerned about the One Ring, though he seemed to know at least as much as the hobbits about its provenance and power. Although the deliberations at the Council of Elrond at Rivendell suggest that Bombadil would be vulnerable to Sauron if the latter recovered the Ring, Bombadil seemed unaffected by the Ring's power and more concerned with keeping his own "country" around the Withywindle in order. As such, according to Gandalf, Tom Bombadil was perhaps not fully aware of the struggle of Light and Darkness and could not prove useful to their causes.

Appearance[]

Tom Bombadil's hat

Tom Bombadil's hat

Tom Bombadil appeared as an old man, at least to Hobbit eyes, with a wrinkled and ruddy face, bright blue eyes, and a bristling brown beard. He was said to be taller than a typical Hobbit, but too short to be a Man, which would put him somewhere between four and a half and five feet in height.

His clothing consisted of a blue jacket and yellow boots, and he wore an old and battered hat, surmounted by a feather. He seems to have preferred to wear a swan-feather in his hat, but before he met Frodo and company on the banks of the Withywindle, he had acquired the feather of a kingfisher instead. In his own house, rather than a hat, he wore a crown of autumn leaves.

Nature[]

Main article: Theories about Tom Bombadil

Tom Bombadil's true nature has been debated over the years, being still uncertain what he really is. Even Tolkien said little about the mystery behind the character, stating that some things must remain mysterious in any narrative, "especially if an explanation really exists."[11] In general, it is considered as accepted the theory that Tom is one of the Ainur, angelic beings who shaped the earth. In fact, Robert Foster's The Complete Guide to Middle-earth describes him as "a Maia 'gone native'". However, other theories indicate that he may be the living embodiment of Arda, of , of the concentrated goodwill of the once neutral elder Forests or Time itself. It is also argued that Tom may be the reincarnated spirit of the Music of the Ainur or a "by-product" of it, a representation of the reader, one or more of Tolkien's friends, and even himself. Other Tolkien scholars, in turn, simply believe that Tom is one of the Nameless Things that inhabited the depths of world since Ainulindalë, or that he is Ilúvatar's counterpart of the Timeless Void, as Ilúvatar is of the Timeless Halls. The claim with the least substance is that he is simply human, mundane human, above through humanity.

Although it was thought by some that Bombadil would be Eru Ilúvatar himself due to Goldberry's statement saying "He is." J.R.R. Tolkien himself rejected this notion, saying that in Middle-earth "there is no embodiment of the One, of God, who indeed remains remote, outside the World."[11] and he carefully differentiated Goldberry's response from the Biblical "I Am That I Am". Tolkien's words might be extrapolated to mean "God is God (Eru Ilúvatar) and Nature is Nature (Tom Bombadil)." Notably that "Nature" is both the attitude and the intricately complex and unknown outside world of. Likewise, speculation had also been raised that Bombadil was one of the Blue Wizards, the Witch-king of Angmar in disguise or an evil entity hiding his true nature, however, all these ideas are generally considered misguided due to their contradictions within Tolkien's works.

Abilities[]

Tom-bombadil (Harry Wellerchew) imunne One Ring by deviantart

Tom Bombadil holding the One Ring

Proclaimed to be "the oldest in existence," Tom Bombadil was apparently immortal and possesses a range of enigmatic powers able to give full control over his domains, seen by Goldberry that described Tom as being "Master of wood, water and hill". He was also referenced as being impossible to capture or imprison. Tom's greatest revealed power was in his singing. With song he exercised authority over Old Man Willow and the supernatural Barrow-wights. Also despite seeming to be a rather whimsical and nonsensical being, he was well known to many powerful beings in Middle-earth, including Elrond and Gandalf, and he could be serious if the need arose.

Another extraordinary capacity Bombadil possessed was his immunity to the power of the One Ring; he could see Frodo when Frodo wore it, and could wear it himself with no effect. He even tossed the Ring in the air, making it vanish, then produced it from his other hand. He noticed the evil nature of the Ring (like Gandalf), warning Frodo not to use it, because his hand "looked more beautiful without him". While this seems to demonstrate that he has unique and mysterious power over the Ring, the idea of giving him the Ring for safekeeping is rejected in the Council of Elrond as Gandalf says, rather, that "the Ring has no power over [Tom Bombadil]...", and believed that Tom would not find the Ring to be very important, and so might simply misplace it.

At the Council, Galdor suggests that Bombadil would be unable to withstand a siege by Sauron "unless such power is in the earth itself", implying that the character may be a manifestation of Middle-earth's inherent properties. This connection would explain Bombadil's seeming obliviousness to the transient concerns of mortals, as evidenced in Gandalf's concern that Tom would not understand the importance of the Ring and would lose it if entrusted with it.

Etymology[]

Tom Bombadil went by many names:

  • To Elves and Dúnedain he was known as Iarwain Ben-adar, which translates to "oldest and fatherless".[4] Iarwain literally means "Old-young".[12]
  • To Men of the Vales of Anduin and Rohan, he was known as Orald.[4] This is an Old English word meaning "very ancient.[13]
  • The Dwarves knew him as Forn.[4] This too is a reference to his age: it is Old Norse for "(belonging to) ancient (days)".[13]
  • Bombadil is said to be a Bucklandish name, added by Hobbit chroniclers to his many older ones. Like most Bucklandish names, its translation is unknown.[5] The resemblance of the -dil ending to the common Elvish (n)dil, "friend," may or may not be coincidental.

Inspiration[]

Tom Bombadil was inspired primarily from a doll Tolkien's son, Michael, played with as a child.

Paula Marmor notes that bobadil is an archaic word meaning "braggart", as seen in the character "Captain Bobadill" in the English play Every Man in His Humour. Because of its Bucklandish form, An Introduction to Elvish lists the name Bombadil under the "Celtic-sounding names". However, it is said that the word derives from Boabdil, the Spaniard name of Abu Abdillah Muhammad XII, the last Moorish ruler of Granada.[14]

John D. Rateliff has noted a theory launched by scholar Justin Noetzel. In the latter's paper "Beorn and Tom Bombadil: Mythology, Narrative, and The Most (Non) Essential Characters in Middle-earth", Noetzel suggests an association of Tom Bombadil with the Celtic Otherworld and tales of the Tuatha Dé Danann.[15]

In The Letters of J. R. R. Tolkien, Tolkien describes Goldberry as the seasonal changes in nature, and Tom Bombadil as the spirit of the (vanishing) Oxford and Berkshire countryside, meaning that Tom is the countryside existing in Time, alive and embodied; However, this letter was in reference to works which predated the writing of The Lord of The Rings, and thus may not be true of Tom in canon.

In a 1954 letter to his proofreader for Lord of the Rings, Tolkien stated "Tom Bombadil is not an important person—to the narrative. I suppose he has some importance as a 'comment.' I mean, I do not really write like that. He represents something that I feel important, though I would not be prepared to analyze the feeling precisely." One reader of the books suggested that Tom Bombadil was a stand-in for God, prompting Tolkien to reply in another 1954 letter, "I really do think you are being too serious, besides missing the point." Anthony Breznican has theorized that while Tolkien famously disliked allegory, he saw Bombadil as being nature personified, including the character's ambivalence about interfering in the world around him.[16]

Quotes[]

"Eldest, that's what I am...Tom remembers the first raindrop and the first acorn...he knew the dark under the stars when it was fearless — before the Dark Lord came from Outside.."
Tom Bombadil (The Fellowship of the Ring)


"Old Tom Bombadil is a merry fellow, Bright blue his jacket is, and his boots are yellow. None have ever caught him yet, for Tom, he is the master: His songs are stronger songs, and his feet are faster."
The Fellowship of the Ring


"He is."
Goldberry, upon being asked who Tom Bombadil is.

Other literature[]

The Adventures of Tom Bombadil, a book of verse published in 1962, is purported to contain a selection of Hobbit poems, two of which are about Tom Bombadil and tell of his adventure with Badger folk. Tom also appears in the poem The Stone Troll, supposedly composed by Sam Gamgee and recorded in the Red Book of Westmarch, in which Tom mentions his "nuncle" Tim, on whose bones the troll is feeding, and he also mentions his father.[7]

In adaptations[]

Tom Bombadil has rarely appeared in adaptations of Lord of the Rings. J.D. Payne has stated that "There's a reason why he [Bombadil] hasn't been in prior adaptations [to Rings of Power], because in some ways he's sort of an anti-dramatic character. He's not a character who has a particularly strong agenda. He observes drama, but largely doesn’t participate in it. In The Fellowship of the Ring, the characters kind of just go there and hang out for a while, and Tom drops some knowledge on them."[16]

The Lord of the Rings film trilogy[]

In many film and radio adaptations of The Lord of the Rings, Bombadil is notable by his absence. Peter Jackson justified his omission of Bombadil from the film The Lord of the Rings: The Fellowship of the Ring by pointing out that the character has little to do with the grand story-line, and does not advance the Hobbits' progress towards Rivendell. However, much of Bombadil's dialogue, and the scene in which the hobbits meet Old Man Willow, are transplanted into scenes that Merry and Pippin share with Treebeard in the film adaptation of The Lord of the Rings: The Two Towers.

A cameo for Bombadil was considered for the first film, where the four Hobbits would be wandering through the Old Forest, and see a feathered cap come darting through the trees. Bombadil's voice and song would be heard, at which point the Hobbits would turn around as fast as they could. However, the scene was never implemented, as there was no time to include it.[16]

The Lord of the Rings: The Rings of Power[]

Tomb Bombadil-RoP

Tom Bombadil in Rings of Power

Tom Bombadil appears for the first time in a live-action capacity in the second season of The Lord of the Rings: The Rings of Power, in which he is portrayed by English actor Rory Kinnear. The costume designer, Luca Mosca, took inspiration from J.R.R. Tolkien's description of Tom Bombadil when making Tom Bombadil's headgear and outfit. The production designer, Kristian Milstead, had the idea of incorporating a star map to the ceiling of Tom's "summer cottage" to suggest that Bombadil "has been watching the constellations for signs—and for the Stranger’s arrival", connecting him to The Stranger's plot. The showrunners mention that they have decided to give Bombadil a second home on the outskirts of Rhûn, "which...used to be sort of Edenic and green and beautiful, but now is...a dead wasteland". At the time of the show, Bombadil has gone out there "to see what's happened" to halt the desolation from spreading westwards as far as his country in the West-lands.[16]

Video games[]

  • In the 1994 SNES game J.R.R. Tolkien's The Lord of the Rings, Volume 1 by Interplay, Tom Bombadil will help out Frodo if he gives him the Old Man Willow note and will rescue 3 hobbits from the Willow Tree, however he does not save them from the Barrow Wrights and they do not stay overnight as it is omitted from the SNES game.
  • Tom Bombadil is a major character in the early quest progression and story-line of The Lord of the Rings Online role-playing game.
  • Tom Bombadil is a hero, summoned through his respective power, in The Battle for Middle-earth II and in the game's expansion pack, The Rise of the Witch-king.
  • Although Tom Bombadil does not appear in Peter Jackson's film series, Decipher produced a card for the character in The Lord of the Rings Trading Card Game. He was portrayed by Harry Weller-Chew.
  • In the Games Workshops' Lord of the Rings strategy game, Tom Bombadil is a hero along with his wife, Goldberry. If they enter a fight, they automatically win, although they can not strike blows; nor can he or Goldberry be killed by shooting or magical powers.
  • Tom Bombadil is an unlockable character in LEGO The Lord of the Rings: The Video Game and in LEGO The Hobbit.

Other[]

  • In April 2008, 3D entertainment model producer Gentle Giant Studios, Inc., headquartered in Burbank, California, released an exclusive sculpted Tom Bombadil bust, limited to 1000 pieces, for the 2007 San Diego Comic-Con. It was licensed under New Line Cinema's The Lord of the Rings franchise.
  • Bombadil appeared in the 1979 Mind's Eye radio adaptation of the books.
  • He was voiced by Norman Shelley in the 1955–1956 BBC radio adaptation of The Lord of the Rings.
  • He was later portrayed by Esko Hukkanen in the 1993 Finnish miniseries Hobitit.[17]
  • In Khraniteli, he was portrayed by Sergei Parshin.
  • The Spanish band "Saurom Lamberth" once dedicated a song to the character.
  • "Bombadil" is the name of a folk-pop band from Durham, North Carolina. (Paste Magazine)
  • One of the names for Voldemort in My Immortal is Tom Bombodil, frequently cited as a reason why this fanfic is an intentional parody.

Trivia[]

  • Because of the imprecision of his true identity or nature, Tom Bombadil is considered to be the most mysterious character created by Tolkien.
  • Both Tom and Treebeard were referred to as the oldest living creatures of Arda, though it is not clear which of the two is the oldest. However, according to Tolkien's letters, it is implied that Bombadil was the oldest living being in Middle-earth.[11]

Gallery[]

ScreenShot00068
Tom Bombadil outside his house in The Lord of the Rings Online
TomGoldberry
Miniatures of Tom and Goldberry produced by Games Workshop
Bfme2-22
Old Tom Bombadil as he appears in The Battle for Middle-earth II
115px-Tom Bombadil viv lotr
Tom as he appears in The Fellowship of the Ring game
Tom-bombadil Harry Wellerchew make up
Harry Wellerchew (making of Tom Bombadil)
Tom Bombadil - LOTR The Card Game
Tom Bombadil from The Lord of the Rings: The Card Game, Wraith and Ruin Adventure Pack.
Tom Bombadil (Objective Ally) - LOTR The Card Game
Tom Bombadil from The Lord of the Rings: The Card Game, The Old Forest and The Fog on the Barrow Downs Standalone Scenarios
Tom Bombadil (BGiME)
Art of Tom Bombadil from Battle Games in Middle Earth
Mareishon - Tom Bombadil and Goldberry
Tom and Goldberry, by Mareishon

Translations[]

Foreign Language Translated name
Amharic ቶም ቦምባዲል
Arabic توم بومباديل
Armenian Թոմ Բոմբադիլ
Belarusian Cyrillic Том Бомбаділ
Bengali টম বম্বাদিল
Bulgarian Cyrillic Том Бомбадил
Burmese တွန် ဘွန်ဘာဒီလ်
Chinese (Hong Kong) 湯姆·龐巴迪
Georgian ტომ ბომბადილი
Greek Τομ Μπομπαντίλ
Gujarati ટોમ બોમ્બદિલ
Hebrew טום בומבדיל
Hindi टॉम बोम्बडिल
Hungarian Bombadil Toma
Japanese トム・ボンバディル
Kannada ಟಾಮ್ ಬೊಂಬಡಿಲ್
Kazakh Том Бомбаділ (Cyrillic) Tom Bombadil (Latin)
Korean 톰 봄바딜
Kyrgyz Cyrillic Том Бомбадил
Laotian ຕໂມ ບໂມບະດິຣ
Macedonian Cyrillic Том Бомбадил
Marathi टॉम भोम्बदिल
Mongolian Cyrillic Том Бомбадил
Nepalese टम बोम्बदिल
Pashto ټام بومبادیل
Persian تام بامبادیل
Punjabi ਟੌਮ ਬੋਮ੍ਬਦਿਲ
Russian Том Бомбадил
Sanskrit टोम् बोम्बदिल्
Serbian Том Бомбадил (Cyrillic) Tom Bombadil (Latin)
Sinhalese ටටොම් බොම්බඩිල්
Swedish Tom Bombadill
Tajik Cyrillic Том Бомбадил
Tamil டாம் போம்படில்
Telugu టామ్ బొమ్బదిల
Thai ทอม บอมบาดิล
Ukrainian Cyrillic Том Бомбадил
Uzbek Том Бомбадил (Cyrillic) Tom Bombadil (Latin)
Yiddish טאָם באָמבאַדיל

References[]

  1. The Adventures of Tom Bombadil and Other Verses from the Red Book, No. 2: Bombadil Goes Boating
  2. The Chronology of The Lord of the Rings, pp. 35, 37
  3. 3.0 3.1 The Lord of the Rings, The Fellowship of the Ring, Book One, Chapter VII: "In the House of Tom Bombadil"
  4. 4.0 4.1 4.2 4.3 The Lord of the Rings, The Fellowship of the Ring, Book Two, ch. II: "The Council of Elrond"
  5. 5.0 5.1 The Adventures of Tom Bombadil, "Preface"
  6. J.R.R. Tolkien in an unpublished draft letter in 1968,
  7. 7.0 7.1 The Adventures of Tom Bombadil
  8. The poem "Once upon a Time" is apparently set during this period. Tom and Goldberry are in a field, and Tom is resting his feet in the dew. He stays there as the days go by, when the Lintips come to visit.
  9. Tales from the Perilous Realm
  10. The Lord of the Rings, The Fellowship of the Ring, Book One, Chapter XI: "A Knife in the Dark"
  11. 11.0 11.1 11.2 The Letters of J.R.R. Tolkien, Letters 144 and 153
  12. The Lord of the Rings: A Reader's Companion, pg. 128; quoting an unpublished letter by Tolkien
  13. 13.0 13.1 The Lord of the Rings: A Reader's Companion "Nomenclature of The Lord of the Rings"
  14. Jim Allan, An Introduction to Elvish, "Giving of Names"
  15. "Valparaiso, Day Three" dated 12 March 2013, Sacnoth's Scriptorium (accessed 14 March 2013)
  16. 16.0 16.1 16.2 16.3 Anthony Breznican, "Tom Bombadil Finally Steps Forth in The Rings of Power - An Exclusive First Look", May 29, 2024
  17. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tom_Bombadil (accessed 15 December 2018)

External links[]


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