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The '''Ruling Queens of Númenor''' were [[Dúnedain]] women who ruled the kingdom of [[Númenor]]. Out of Númenor's twenty-five [[List of rulers of Númenor|rulers]], only three were female, but the existence of Ruling Queens under Númenórean law was remarkable in a society and a world dominated by male rulers.
 
The '''Ruling Queens of Númenor''' were [[Dúnedain]] women who ruled the kingdom of [[Númenor]]. Out of Númenor's twenty-five [[List of rulers of Númenor|rulers]], only three were female, but the existence of Ruling Queens under Númenórean law was remarkable in a society and a world dominated by male rulers.
   
It is worth noting that, although the females in Tolkien's writings generally have less authority than the males, the laws of Númenor were ahead of their time in this fictitious universe. The first European nation to adopt [[primogeniture|equal primogeniture]] ([[wikipedia:Sweden|Sweden]]) did not do so until 1980.
+
In the early days of Númenor, succession followed the principle of agnatic primogeniture that is, rule passed to the oldest ''male'' offspring of the King. A similar principle was used by the High Kings of the [[Ñoldor]]in [[elves]], with whom the [[Edain]] of Númenor had had extensive dealings.
   
In the early days of Númenor, succession followed the principle of agnatic primogeniture—that is, rule passed to the oldest ''male'' offspring of the King. A similar principle was used by the High Kings of the [[Ñoldor]]in [[elves]], with whom the [[Edain]] of Númenor had had extensive dealings.
+
[[Silmariën]] (born [[SA 521]]<sup>1</sup>), the progenitor of the line of the [[Lords of Andúnië]]&mdash; from which the Kings of [[Gondor]] and [[Arnor]] later sprung&mdash; was the oldest child of King [[Tar-Elendil]]. Under the laws at the time, women were not allowed to rule, so she was passed over in favor of her younger brother, [[Tar-Meneldur]]. Nevertheless, Silmariën is one of the most significant of Númenor's royal family, as she presumably inherited both the sword [[Narsil]] and the [[Ring of Barahir]] from Tar-Elendil, her father, as these were handed down to her descendants, the Lords of Andúnië and later the Kings of [[Gondor]] and [[Arnor]]. Silmariën also probably commissioned the creation of other precious heirlooms to survive into the [[Fourth Age]]: the Sceptre of Andúnië, which after the Downfall became the Sceptre of [[Arnor]] and the [[Star of Elendil]], which likewise became the token of royalty in [[Arnor]].
 
Silmariën (born [[SA 521]]<sup>1</sup>), the progenitor of the line of the Lords of [[Andúnië]]&mdash;from which the Kings of [[Gondor]] and [[Arnor]] later sprung&mdash;was the oldest child of King [[Tar-Elendil]]. Under the laws at the time, women were not allowed to rule, so she was passed over in favor of her younger brother, [[Tar-Meneldur]]. Nevertheless, Silmariën is one of the most significant of Númenor's royal family, as she presumably inherited both the sword [[Narsil]] and the [[Ring of Barahir]] from Tar-Elendil, her father, as these were handed down to her descendants, the Lords of Andúnië and later the Kings of [[Gondor]] and [[Arnor]]. Silmariën also probably commissioned the creation of other precious heirlooms to survive into the [[Fourth Age]]: the Sceptre of Andúnië, which after the Downfall became the Sceptre of [[Arnor]] and the [[Star of Elendil]], which likewise became the token of royalty in [[Arnor]].
 
   
 
[[Tar-Aldarion]], the sixth ruler of Númenor, had only one child: a daughter, Ancalimë. To prevent the throne from passing to his nephew, [[Soronto]], he changed the law to allow full cognatic primogeniture, under which rule would pass to the oldest child of the ruler, whether male or female. Soronto was Tar-Aldarion's ''sister's'' son, which seems to imply that in Númenor before the law change, while the throne could not be inherited by females, it could be inherited through females.
 
[[Tar-Aldarion]], the sixth ruler of Númenor, had only one child: a daughter, Ancalimë. To prevent the throne from passing to his nephew, [[Soronto]], he changed the law to allow full cognatic primogeniture, under which rule would pass to the oldest child of the ruler, whether male or female. Soronto was Tar-Aldarion's ''sister's'' son, which seems to imply that in Númenor before the law change, while the throne could not be inherited by females, it could be inherited through females.
   
==[[Tar-Ancalimë]]==
+
==Tar-Ancalimë==
  +
 
'''Tar-Ancalimë''' ([[SA 873]] - [[SA 1285]], r. [[SA 1075]] - [[SA 1280]]) was the seventh ruler and first Ruling Queen of Númenor. Her name means "Most bright".
 
'''Tar-Ancalimë''' ([[SA 873]] - [[SA 1285]], r. [[SA 1075]] - [[SA 1280]]) was the seventh ruler and first Ruling Queen of Númenor. Her name means "Most bright".
   
 
She married the nobleman [[Hallacar]], son of [[Hallatan]] of [[Hyarastorni]]. Both Tar-Ancalimë and Hallacar were fifth-generation descendants of King [[Vardamir Nólimon]], and the marriage was more one of politics than of love. The Queen aimed to produce of an heir in order to secure her throne from her first cousin [[Soronto]]. Following the birth of their son, Hallacar and Tar-Ancalimë lived apart.
 
She married the nobleman [[Hallacar]], son of [[Hallatan]] of [[Hyarastorni]]. Both Tar-Ancalimë and Hallacar were fifth-generation descendants of King [[Vardamir Nólimon]], and the marriage was more one of politics than of love. The Queen aimed to produce of an heir in order to secure her throne from her first cousin [[Soronto]]. Following the birth of their son, Hallacar and Tar-Ancalimë lived apart.
   
Tar-Ancalimë was raised by her mother [[Erendis]] and a childhood companion was [[Zamîn]]. Her mother's tragic married life might have influenced Tar-Ancalimë's rejection of her husband. She was succeeded by her son, [[Tar-Anárion]]. She died in year 1285, at the age of 412 years.
+
Tar-Ancalimë was raised by her mother [[Erendis]] and a childhood companion was [[Zamîn]]. Her mother's tragic married life might have influenced Tar-Ancalimë's rejection of her husband. She was succeeded by her son, [[Tar-Anárion]]. She died in year 1285, at the age of 412 years.
   
 
{{sequence|
 
{{sequence|
 
prev=[[Tar-Aldarion]]|
 
prev=[[Tar-Aldarion]]|
 
next=[[Tar-Anárion]]|
 
next=[[Tar-Anárion]]|
list=[[Kings and Queens of Númenor|Ruling Queen of Númenor]]<br>[[SA 1075]] - [[SA 1280]]
+
list=[[Kings and Queens of Númenor|Ruling Queen of Númenor]]<br/>[[SA 1075]] - [[SA 1280]]
}}
+
|title = Ruler of Númenor|before = [[Tar-Aldarion]]|after = [[Tar-Anárion]]|years = SA 1075 - SA 1285}}
   
==[[Tar-Telperiën]]==
+
==Tar-Telperiën==
'''Tar-Telperiën''' ([[SA 1320]] - [[SA 1731]], r. [[SA 1556]] - [[SA 1731]]) was the 10th ruler and second Ruling Queen of [[Númenor]]. She succeeded her father, King [[Tar-Súrion]] (who was King because his two elder sisters had no interest in ruling). She was named for [[Telperion]], the White Tree of [[Valinor]].
 
   
Tar-Telperiën ruled for 175 years. During her reign, the [[Rings of Power]] were forged, and [[Sauron]] conquered [[Eriador]]. She did little to react to these events. She refused to marry and bore no children. She was succeeded by [[Tar-Minastir]], the son of her younger brother, [[Isilmo]]. She died in year 1731 of the [[Second Age]] at the age of 411 years.
+
'''Tar-Telperiën''' ([[SA 1320]] - [[SA 1731]], r. [[SA 1556]] - [[SA 1731]]) was the 10th ruler and second Ruling Queen of [[Númenor]]. She succeeded her father, King [[Tar-Súrion]] (who was King because his two elder sisters had no interest in ruling). She was named for [[Telperion]], the Silver Tree of [[Valinor]].
  +
  +
Tar-Telperiën ruled for 175 years. During her reign, the [[Rings of Power]] were forged, and [[Sauron]] conquered [[Eriador]]. She did little to react to these events. She refused to marry and bore no children. She was succeeded by [[Tar-Minastir]], the son of her younger brother, [[Isilmo]]. She died in [[SA 1731]] at the age of 411 years.
   
 
{{sequence|
 
{{sequence|
 
prev=[[Tar-Súrion]]|
 
prev=[[Tar-Súrion]]|
 
next=[[Tar-Minastir]]|
 
next=[[Tar-Minastir]]|
list= [[Kings and Queens of Númenor|Ruling Queen of Númenor]]<br> [[SA 1556]] - [[SA 1731]]
+
list= [[Kings and Queens of Númenor|Ruling Queen of Númenor]]<br/> [[SA 1556]] - [[SA 1731]]
}}
+
|title = Ruler of Númenor|before = [[Tar-Súrion]]|after = [[Tar-Minastir]]|years = [[SA 1556]] - [[SA 1731]]}}
   
==[[Tar-Vanimeldë]]==
+
==Tar-Vanimeldë==
'''Tar-Vanimeldë''' ([[SA 2277]] - [[SA 2637]], r. [[TA 2526]] - [[SA 2637]]) was the 16th ruler and third ruling Queen of [[Númenor]]. She was the daughter and heir of [[Tar-Telemmaitë]]. She had little interest in ruling, however, and left the day-to-day chores of monarchy to her husband, the nobleman [[Herucalmo]]. Her name means "Beautiful Beloved".
 
   
Tar-Vanimeldë ruled for 111 years. When she died in 2637 at the age of 360 years, the Kingship should have gone to her son, [[Tar-Alcarin]], but Herucalmo usurped the throne and ruled for twenty years as King Tar-Anducal. His rule was not considered legitimate, and in the official records Vanimeldë was directly followed by Alcarin.
+
'''Tar-Vanimeldë''' ([[SA 2277]] - [[SA 2637]], r. [[SA 2526]] - [[SA 2637]]) was the 16th ruler and third ruling Queen of [[Númenor]]. She was the daughter and heir of [[Tar-Telemmaitë]]. She had little interest in ruling, however, and left the day-to-day chores of monarchy to her husband, the nobleman [[Herucalmo]]. Her name means "Beautiful Beloved".
  +
  +
Tar-Vanimeldë ruled for 111 years. When she died in 2637 at the age of 360 years, the Kingship should have gone to her son, [[Tar-Alcarin]], but Herucalmo usurped the throne and ruled for twenty years as King Tar-Anducal. His rule was not considered legitimate, and in the official records Vanimeldë was directly followed by Alcarin.
   
 
{{sequence|
 
{{sequence|
 
prev=[[Tar-Telemmaitë]]|
 
prev=[[Tar-Telemmaitë]]|
next=[[Herucalmo]] (usurper)<br>[[Tar-Alcarin]]|
+
next=[[Herucalmo]] (usurper)<br/>[[Tar-Alcarin]]|
list=[[Kings and Queens of Númenor|Ruling Queen of Númenor]]<br>[[TA 2526]] - [[SA 2637]]
+
list=[[Kings and Queens of Númenor|Ruling Queen of Númenor]]<br/>[[SA 2526]] - [[SA 2637]]
}}
+
|title = Ruler of Númenor|before = [[Tar-Telemmaitë]]|after = [[Herucalmo]] (usurper)<br/>[[Tar-Alcarin]]|years = [[SA 2526]] - [[SA 2637]]}}
   
==[[Míriel Ar-Zimraphel]]==
+
==Míriel Ar-Zimraphel==
'''Míriel'''<sup>2</sup> was the daughter of King [[Tar-Palantir]], and the rightful heir of [[Númenor]]. She should have been Queen, but her throne was usurped by her husband, [[Ar-Pharazôn]], who gave her the name '''Ar-Zimraphel''' (as Ruling Queen she would have preferred the [[Quenya]] ''Tar-''; she would have been '''Tar-Míriel'''). When the [[Valar]] sank Númenor, Míriel attempted to ascend [[Meneltarma]], but she drowned before reaching the summit.
 
   
==Ruling Queens in Gondor and Arnor==
+
'''Míriel'''<sup>2</sup> was the daughter of King [[Tar-Palantir]], and the rightful heir of [[Númenor]]. She should have been Queen, but her throne was usurped by her husband, [[Ar-Pharazôn]], who gave her the name '''Ar-Zimraphel''' (as Ruling Queen she would have preferred the [[Quenya]] ''Tar-''; she would have been '''Tar-Míriel'''). When the [[Valar]] sank Númenor, Míriel attempted to ascend [[Meneltarma]], but she drowned before reaching the summit.
   
After the [[Akallabêth|destruction of Númenor]], the suriving Númenóreans (led by descendents of Silmariën) founded the kingdoms of [[Arnor]] and [[Gondor]] in [[Middle-earth]]. At that point, cognatic primogeniture seems to have been abandoned; none of the rulers of [[Kings of Arnor]] or [[Kings of Gondor]] were women, and in the case of [[Anárion]]'s children the youngest child [[Meneldil]] received the throne, as his older siblings were women. [[Queen Berúthiel]] of Gondor, although certainly formidable, was a Queen-consort, and therefore did not rule, at least officially.
+
== Queens in Gondor and Arnor ==
  +
  +
After the [[Akallabêth|destruction of Númenor]], the surviving Númenóreans (led by descendents of Silmariën) founded the kingdoms of [[Arnor]] and [[Gondor]] in [[Middle-earth]]. At that point, cognatic primogeniture seems to have been abandoned; none of the rulers of [[Kings of Arnor]] or [[Kings of Gondor]] were women, and in the case of [[Anárion]]'s children the youngest child [[Meneldil]] received the throne, as his older siblings were women. [[Queen Berúthiel]] of Gondor, although certainly formidable, was a Queen-consort, and therefore did not rule, at least officially.
   
 
In [[TA 1945]], [[Arvedui]] of [[Arthedain]]&mdash;who was married to [[Fíriel]], daughter and only surviving child of King [[Ondoher]]&mdash;invoked the old Númenórean law to claim that ''he'' (not his wife) should be granted the throne. Instead, the Steward [[Pelendur]] gave the throne to [[Eärnil II]], a prominent general. Ironically, the Kingship ''did'' eventually pass to Fíriel's line, in the person of King [[Aragorn|Aragorn Elessar]].
 
In [[TA 1945]], [[Arvedui]] of [[Arthedain]]&mdash;who was married to [[Fíriel]], daughter and only surviving child of King [[Ondoher]]&mdash;invoked the old Númenórean law to claim that ''he'' (not his wife) should be granted the throne. Instead, the Steward [[Pelendur]] gave the throne to [[Eärnil II]], a prominent general. Ironically, the Kingship ''did'' eventually pass to Fíriel's line, in the person of King [[Aragorn|Aragorn Elessar]].
   
----
+
==Background==
*<sup>1</sup>The ''Tale of Years'' as published in ''[[The Lord of the Rings]]'' gives Silmariën a birthdate of [[SA 548]], but it is clear that Silmariën was the oldest child of Tar-Elendil, while that of her sister Isilmë is fixed at [[SA 532]] and her brother at [[SA 543]]. The reason for this apparent error is that her birthdate was changed from SA 548 to [[SA 521]], but this revision was missed in the ''Tale of Years'' (see [[Timeline of Arda]]).
+
*<sup>2</sup>In the earliest version of the tale of the [[Akallabêth|Fall of Númenor]] (in ''[[The Lost Road and Other Writings]]''), Míriel's name is '''Tar-Ilien'''.
+
Although females of [[J.R.R. Tolkien]]'s writings generally have less authority than the males, the laws of Númenor were ahead of their time in this fictitious universe. The first European nation to adopt [[primogeniture|equal primogeniture]] ([[wikipedia:Sweden|Sweden]]) did not do so until 1980.
  +
  +
*The ''Tale of Years'' as published in ''[[The Lord of the Rings]]'' gives Silmariën a birthdate of [[SA 548]], but it is clear that Silmariën was the oldest child of Tar-Elendil, while that of her sister Isilmë is fixed at [[SA 532]] and her brother at [[SA 543]]. The reason for this apparent error is that her birthdate was changed from SA 548 to [[SA 521]], but this revision was missed in the ''Tale of Years'' (see [[Timeline of Arda]]).
  +
*In the earliest version of the tale of the [[Akallabêth|Fall of Númenor]] (in ''[[The Lost Road and Other Writings]]''), Míriel's name is '''Tar-Ilien'''.
  +
  +
==Translations around the world==
  +
<div style="overflow:auto; height:300px; width:500px; float:left">
  +
<!--<div style="overflow:auto; height:200px;">-->
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{|class="itemtable" bgcolor=#EDEEFF style="color:#6f3d0b; border:2px solid #FFF; border-top: 0; text-align:left; -moz-border-radius-bottomleft:8px; -moz-border-radius-bottomright:8px; -webkit-border-bottom-left-radius:8px; -webkit-border-bottom-right-radius:8px;"
  +
|width=300px|'''Foreign Language'''
  +
|width=300px|'''Translated name'''
  +
|-
  +
|German
  +
|Regierenden Königinnen von Númenor
  +
|-
  +
|Polish
  +
|Rządzący Królowe Númenoru
  +
|-
  +
|Portuguese
  +
|As rainhas dominantes de Númenor
  +
|-
  +
|Spanish
  +
|Las reinas gobernante de Númenor
  +
|}
  +
  +
</div>
  +
{{Clear}}
   
[[Category:Rulers of Númenor|*Ruling Queens]]
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[[pl:Królowe Númenoru]]
[[Category:Queens of Númenor|* ]]
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[[Category:Rulers of Númenor]]
[[Category:Numenor]]
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[[Category:Ruling Queens of Numenor| ]]

Latest revision as of 01:28, July 6, 2019

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The Ruling Queens of Númenor were Dúnedain women who ruled the kingdom of Númenor. Out of Númenor's twenty-five rulers, only three were female, but the existence of Ruling Queens under Númenórean law was remarkable in a society and a world dominated by male rulers.

In the early days of Númenor, succession followed the principle of agnatic primogeniture that is, rule passed to the oldest male offspring of the King. A similar principle was used by the High Kings of the Ñoldorin elves, with whom the Edain of Númenor had had extensive dealings.

Silmariën (born SA 5211), the progenitor of the line of the Lords of Andúnië— from which the Kings of Gondor and Arnor later sprung— was the oldest child of King Tar-Elendil. Under the laws at the time, women were not allowed to rule, so she was passed over in favor of her younger brother, Tar-Meneldur. Nevertheless, Silmariën is one of the most significant of Númenor's royal family, as she presumably inherited both the sword Narsil and the Ring of Barahir from Tar-Elendil, her father, as these were handed down to her descendants, the Lords of Andúnië and later the Kings of Gondor and Arnor. Silmariën also probably commissioned the creation of other precious heirlooms to survive into the Fourth Age: the Sceptre of Andúnië, which after the Downfall became the Sceptre of Arnor and the Star of Elendil, which likewise became the token of royalty in Arnor.

Tar-Aldarion, the sixth ruler of Númenor, had only one child: a daughter, Ancalimë. To prevent the throne from passing to his nephew, Soronto, he changed the law to allow full cognatic primogeniture, under which rule would pass to the oldest child of the ruler, whether male or female. Soronto was Tar-Aldarion's sister's son, which seems to imply that in Númenor before the law change, while the throne could not be inherited by females, it could be inherited through females.

Tar-AncalimëEdit

Tar-Ancalimë (SA 873 - SA 1285, r. SA 1075 - SA 1280) was the seventh ruler and first Ruling Queen of Númenor. Her name means "Most bright".

She married the nobleman Hallacar, son of Hallatan of Hyarastorni. Both Tar-Ancalimë and Hallacar were fifth-generation descendants of King Vardamir Nólimon, and the marriage was more one of politics than of love. The Queen aimed to produce of an heir in order to secure her throne from her first cousin Soronto. Following the birth of their son, Hallacar and Tar-Ancalimë lived apart.

Tar-Ancalimë was raised by her mother Erendis and a childhood companion was Zamîn. Her mother's tragic married life might have influenced Tar-Ancalimë's rejection of her husband. She was succeeded by her son, Tar-Anárion. She died in year 1285, at the age of 412 years.

Ruler of Númenor
Preceded by
Tar-Aldarion
Ruling Queens of Númenor Succeeded by
Tar-Anárion
SA 1075 - SA 1285

Tar-TelperiënEdit

Tar-Telperiën (SA 1320 - SA 1731, r. SA 1556 - SA 1731) was the 10th ruler and second Ruling Queen of Númenor. She succeeded her father, King Tar-Súrion (who was King because his two elder sisters had no interest in ruling). She was named for Telperion, the Silver Tree of Valinor.

Tar-Telperiën ruled for 175 years. During her reign, the Rings of Power were forged, and Sauron conquered Eriador. She did little to react to these events. She refused to marry and bore no children. She was succeeded by Tar-Minastir, the son of her younger brother, Isilmo. She died in SA 1731 at the age of 411 years.

Ruler of Númenor
Preceded by
Tar-Súrion
Ruling Queens of Númenor Succeeded by
Tar-Minastir
SA 1556 - SA 1731

Tar-VanimeldëEdit

Tar-Vanimeldë (SA 2277 - SA 2637, r. SA 2526 - SA 2637) was the 16th ruler and third ruling Queen of Númenor. She was the daughter and heir of Tar-Telemmaitë. She had little interest in ruling, however, and left the day-to-day chores of monarchy to her husband, the nobleman Herucalmo. Her name means "Beautiful Beloved".

Tar-Vanimeldë ruled for 111 years. When she died in 2637 at the age of 360 years, the Kingship should have gone to her son, Tar-Alcarin, but Herucalmo usurped the throne and ruled for twenty years as King Tar-Anducal. His rule was not considered legitimate, and in the official records Vanimeldë was directly followed by Alcarin.

Ruler of Númenor
Preceded by
Tar-Telemmaitë
Ruling Queens of Númenor Succeeded by
Herucalmo (usurper)
Tar-Alcarin
SA 2526 - SA 2637

Míriel Ar-ZimraphelEdit

Míriel2 was the daughter of King Tar-Palantir, and the rightful heir of Númenor. She should have been Queen, but her throne was usurped by her husband, Ar-Pharazôn, who gave her the name Ar-Zimraphel (as Ruling Queen she would have preferred the Quenya Tar-; she would have been Tar-Míriel). When the Valar sank Númenor, Míriel attempted to ascend Meneltarma, but she drowned before reaching the summit.

Queens in Gondor and Arnor Edit

After the destruction of Númenor, the surviving Númenóreans (led by descendents of Silmariën) founded the kingdoms of Arnor and Gondor in Middle-earth. At that point, cognatic primogeniture seems to have been abandoned; none of the rulers of Kings of Arnor or Kings of Gondor were women, and in the case of Anárion's children the youngest child Meneldil received the throne, as his older siblings were women. Queen Berúthiel of Gondor, although certainly formidable, was a Queen-consort, and therefore did not rule, at least officially.

In TA 1945, Arvedui of Arthedain—who was married to Fíriel, daughter and only surviving child of King Ondoher—invoked the old Númenórean law to claim that he (not his wife) should be granted the throne. Instead, the Steward Pelendur gave the throne to Eärnil II, a prominent general. Ironically, the Kingship did eventually pass to Fíriel's line, in the person of King Aragorn Elessar.

BackgroundEdit

Although females of J.R.R. Tolkien's writings generally have less authority than the males, the laws of Númenor were ahead of their time in this fictitious universe. The first European nation to adopt equal primogeniture (Sweden) did not do so until 1980.

Translations around the worldEdit

Foreign Language Translated name
German Regierenden Königinnen von Númenor
Polish Rządzący Królowe Númenoru
Portuguese As rainhas dominantes de Númenor
Spanish Las reinas gobernante de Númenor
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