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Ruling Queens of Númenor

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'''Míriel'''<sup>2</sup> was the daughter of King [[Tar-Palantir]], and the rightful heir of [[Númenor]]. She should have been Queen, but her throne was usurped by her husband, [[Ar-Pharazôn]], who gave her the name '''Ar-Zimraphel''' (as Ruling Queen she would have preferred the [[Quenya]] ''Tar-''; she would have been '''Tar-Míriel'''). When the [[Valar]] sank Númenor, Míriel attempted to ascend [[Meneltarma]], but she drowned before reaching the summit.
 
'''Míriel'''<sup>2</sup> was the daughter of King [[Tar-Palantir]], and the rightful heir of [[Númenor]]. She should have been Queen, but her throne was usurped by her husband, [[Ar-Pharazôn]], who gave her the name '''Ar-Zimraphel''' (as Ruling Queen she would have preferred the [[Quenya]] ''Tar-''; she would have been '''Tar-Míriel'''). When the [[Valar]] sank Númenor, Míriel attempted to ascend [[Meneltarma]], but she drowned before reaching the summit.
   
== Queens in Gondor and Arnor ==
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== Ruling Queens in Gondor and Arnor ==
   
 
After the [[Akallabêth|destruction of Númenor]], the surviving Númenóreans (led by descendents of Silmariën) founded the kingdoms of [[Arnor]] and [[Gondor]] in [[Middle-earth]]. At that point, cognatic primogeniture seems to have been abandoned; none of the rulers of [[Kings of Arnor]] or [[Kings of Gondor]] were women, and in the case of [[Anárion]]'s children the youngest child [[Meneldil]] received the throne, as his older siblings were women. [[Queen Berúthiel]] of Gondor, although certainly formidable, was a Queen-consort, and therefore did not rule, at least officially.
 
After the [[Akallabêth|destruction of Númenor]], the surviving Númenóreans (led by descendents of Silmariën) founded the kingdoms of [[Arnor]] and [[Gondor]] in [[Middle-earth]]. At that point, cognatic primogeniture seems to have been abandoned; none of the rulers of [[Kings of Arnor]] or [[Kings of Gondor]] were women, and in the case of [[Anárion]]'s children the youngest child [[Meneldil]] received the throne, as his older siblings were women. [[Queen Berúthiel]] of Gondor, although certainly formidable, was a Queen-consort, and therefore did not rule, at least officially.
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In [[TA 1945]], [[Arvedui]] of [[Arthedain]]&mdash;who was married to [[Fíriel]], daughter and only surviving child of King [[Ondoher]]&mdash;invoked the old Númenórean law to claim that ''he'' (not his wife) should be granted the throne. Instead, the Steward [[Pelendur]] gave the throne to [[Eärnil II]], a prominent general. Ironically, the Kingship ''did'' eventually pass to Fíriel's line, in the person of King [[Aragorn|Aragorn Elessar]].
 
In [[TA 1945]], [[Arvedui]] of [[Arthedain]]&mdash;who was married to [[Fíriel]], daughter and only surviving child of King [[Ondoher]]&mdash;invoked the old Númenórean law to claim that ''he'' (not his wife) should be granted the throne. Instead, the Steward [[Pelendur]] gave the throne to [[Eärnil II]], a prominent general. Ironically, the Kingship ''did'' eventually pass to Fíriel's line, in the person of King [[Aragorn|Aragorn Elessar]].
   
==Background==
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Although females of [[J.R.R. Tolkien]]'s writings generally have less authority than the males, the laws of Númenor were ahead of their time in this fictitious universe. The first European nation to adopt [[primogeniture|equal primogeniture]] ([[wikipedia:Sweden|Sweden]]) did not do so until 1980.
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==Behind the scenes==
   
*The ''Tale of Years'' as published in ''[[The Lord of the Rings]]'' gives Silmariën a birthdate of [[SA 548]], but it is clear that Silmariën was the oldest child of Tar-Elendil, while that of her sister Isilmë is fixed at [[SA 532]] and her brother at [[SA 543]]. The reason for this apparent error is that her birthdate was changed from SA 548 to [[SA 521]], but this revision was missed in the ''Tale of Years'' (see [[Timeline of Arda]]).
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It is worth noting that, although the females in Tolkien's writings generally have less authority than the males, the laws of Númenor were ahead of their time in this fictitious universe. The first European nation to adopt [[primogeniture|equal primogeniture]] ([[wikipedia:Sweden|Sweden]]) did not do so until 1980.
*In the earliest version of the tale of the [[Akallabêth|Fall of Númenor]] (in ''[[The Lost Road and Other Writings]]''), Míriel's name is '''Tar-Ilien'''.
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*<sup>1</sup>The ''Tale of Years'' as published in ''[[The Lord of the Rings]]'' gives Silmariën a birthdate of [[SA 548]], but it is clear that Silmariën was the oldest child of Tar-Elendil, while that of her sister Isilmë is fixed at [[SA 532]] and her brother at [[SA 543]]. The reason for this apparent error is that her birthdate was changed from SA 548 to [[SA 521]], but this revision was missed in the ''Tale of Years'' (see [[Timeline of Arda]]).
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*<sup>2</sup>In the earliest version of the tale of the [[Akallabêth|Fall of Númenor]] (in ''[[The Lost Road and Other Writings]]''), Míriel's name is '''Tar-Ilien'''.
   
 
==Translations around the world==
 
==Translations around the world==
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