Years of the Trees, and First Age
In the Years of the Trees the Elves passed through Rhovanion on their Great Journey. Much later during the First Age, the Atanatári (Fathers of Men) followed them. The region is not otherwise mentioned until tales of the Second Age.
The great battlefield (or Dagorlad) of the War of the Last Alliance against the host of Sauron lay in the south of Rhovanion, and in the Gladden Fields of the Great River the High King of Gondor and Arnor, Isildur, son of Elendil, was killed.
In TA 1248, Rómendacil II of Gondor destroyed all camps of the Easterlings even beyond the Sea of Rhûn, and a strong alliance with the Northmen princes of Rhovanion was forged. The strongest of these princes at this time was Vidugavia, and Prince Valacar of Gondor was sent as an ambassador to his court. Vidugavia's daughter Vidumavi married Valacar, and their son Vinitharya became King Eldacar in TA 1432, which led to the Kin-strife in TA 1437. Eldacar fled to Rhovanion, and he reclaimed his Kingdom with a Northmen army in TA 1447.
In the north of Greenwood lived the Silvan elves ruled by Thranduil, and in the south of Greenwood and across the river in Lórinand ruled Amdír and later Amroth. In the far south, near the rapids of Sarn Gebir, watched the northern guard of Gondor, and in the valleys of the Anduin lived Stoors (Hobbits).
In TA 1636 the Great Plague devastated Rhovanion, killing more than half its people. This left the Northmen weakened, and in TA 1856 the Wainriders overran and enslaved Rhovanion. For 43 years Rhovanion was enslaved, but in TA 1899 there was a revolt, coordinated with an attack by Gondor on the Wainriders from the west. Rhovanion was freed but left extremely weakened. Many Men of Rhovanion left for Gondor, where they were welcomed as distant relatives, or migrated to the vales of Anduin, where they became the Éothéod.
In the mid Third Age, Rhovanion was a quite populated area: in the north lay the Dwarven kingdoms of Erebor and the Dwarf halls in the Ered Mithrin, and the Mannish kingdom of Dale, near the sources of the Great River Anduin lay the Mannish realm of Éothéod, and in and around the south and east of Greenwood the Great lived the Woodmen.
In c. TA 2460 Sauron returned as "the Necromancer", taking residence at Dol Guldur in the south of Greenwood, which became evil and was renamed "Mirkwood". The Dwarves of Erebor and Men of Dale were destroyed and scattered when the Dragon Smaug took Erebor, and Gondor retreated from its northern outposts. Some Men still lived along the forest, notably the Beornings, Woodmen and the Men of Esgaroth upon the Long Lake. The Men of Éothéod removed south at the invitation of Gondor, and settled the plains of Calenardhon, later Rohan. After being driven out of Erebor the Dwarves relocated, some went to the Iron Hills, but most went to the Ered Luin in Eriador.
At the end of the Third Age, the Kingdoms of Erebor and Dale were restored as a result of the death of Smaug and the Battle of Five Armies, and Sauron was removed from Mirkwood by the White Council. During the War of the Ring fighting raged across Rhovanion, and after Sauron was defeated Mirkwood was made clean again, and renamed Eryn Lasgalen, or "Wood of Greenleaves". Early in the Fourth Age Gondor reclaimed large parts of it as part of its East-lands.
- To the west: the range of the Hithaeglir, or Misty Mountains.
- To the south: the line marked by the Limlight river, Anduin, Emyn Muil, Dagorlad, and the Ered Lithui.
|Foreign Language||Translated name|
|Georgian||როვანიონი (Rhovanion)/ველურმიწეთი (Wilderland)|
|Italian||Rhovanion a.k.a. Terre Selvagge|
|Kazakh||Рһованіон (Cyrillic) Rhovanion (Latin)|
|Korean||로바 니온 ?|
|Norwegian||Rhovanion a.k.a. Villenland|
|Portuguese||Rhovanion a.k.a. Terra Selvagem (Portugal)
Rhovanion a.k.a. Terras Ermas (Portuguese Brazil)
|Spanish (Spain and Latin America)||Rhovanion a.k.a. Tierras Ásperas|
|Serbian||Рованион (Cyrillic) Rhovanion (Latin)|
|Uzbek||Рҳованион (Cyrillic) Rhovanion (Latin)|
- J.R.R. Tolkien, "Words, Phrases and Passages in Various Tongues in The Lord of the Rings", in Parma Eldalamberon XVII (edited by Christopher Gilson), p. 78
- J.R.R. Tolkien, "Unfinished index for The Lord of the Rings", in Wayne G. Hammond and Christina Scull (eds), The Lord of the Rings: A Reader's Companion, p. 14
- J.R.R. Tolkien, "Nomenclature of The Lord of the Rings" in Wayne G. Hammond and Christina Scull (eds), The Lord of the Rings: A Reader's Companion, p. 779