The Third Age
Durin's Folk discovered the mineral wealth of the Lonely Mountain and the colony became the ancestral home of the King under the Mountain. By TA 1999, it had become a Dwarven stronghold, where the Dwarves became a numerous and prosperous people. In this time, they became very rich and amassed a large amount of gold and treasure which included the jewel known as the Arkenstone. Thrain I used the Arkenstone as a symbol of his rule, and his sons and grandsons under him who were to follow.
For two-hundred and eleven years the kingdom advanced, expanded, prospered, and endured until Thorin I abandoned it to join his kin in the Grey Mountains, and the Lonely Mountain was abandoned for three-hundred and eighty years. However, the Dwarves of the Grey Mountains began receiving attacks from the dragons that still lived in those mountains, and became embroiled in a costly war against them, which forced the Dwarves to abandon the Grey Mountains in TA 2590. They went their separate ways: Grór and his followers settled in the Iron Hills, and Thrór with his followers went to the Lonely Mountain.
While Thorin Oakenshield was out hunting one day in TA 2770, Smaug flew in from the northern mountains and attacked the Lonely Mountain. After laying waste to both Erebor and the neighboring town of Dale, Smaug made the mountain his domain and hoarded the kingdom's wealth for himself. Thráin II and several companions escaped through a secret door. For many years thereafter the Dwarves lived in exile in the Blue Mountains until, seemingly by chance, Gandalf met Thorin Oakenshield and together they planned to reclaim the mountain. This is told in detail in The Quest of Erebor and described by Tolkien's song, "Far Over the Misty Mountains Cold".
The Quest for Erebor
In TA 2941, Bilbo Baggins and Thorin's company traveled to the Lonely Mountain to regain the treasure Smaug had stolen. Set into the side of the mountain was a secret door, five feet high and wide enough for three to walk through abreast. Gandalf had managed to obtain the door's key, which fit a keyhole which could be found only when the setting sun and the last moon of autumn (also known as Durin's Day) would mingle their light upon the keyhole. As told by Tolkien in The Hobbit, it took many days to find the door, and luckily for Thorin and Company, they did not arrive on Durin's day so they had plenty of time to enter the mountain.
Smaug was eventually slain, shot out of the sky by a well-aimed arrow at his only weak spot by Bard the Bowman, a man of Laketown and a descendant of Girion, the last King of Dale. He was later declared the king of the restored Kingdom of Dale. Thorin thus reclaimed the mountain, but the elves of Mirkwood and men of Lake-town claimed a part of the treasure, which Thorin refused to share. Dáin II Ironfoot came to the aid of his cousin Thorin, and the three races almost came to open war. The conflict was averted when armies of orcs attacked, eager to break the strength of all three kingdoms. The dwarves, elves, and men joined together with the Eagles against the Orcs, in what became known as the Battle of the Five Armies. During the battle, Thorin was mortally injured, and the titles King under the Mountain and King of Durin's Folk passed to Dáin.
War of the Ring
Battle of Dale
The demise of Smaug was not to be the last of Lonely Mountain's many troubles. In TA 3019 on the 17th of March, a horde of Easterling soldiers from Rhûn swarmed over the Redwater river, opening up a second front in the northern theater of the War of the Ring. The sheer force of the feared and renowned Easterlings crushed the Men of Dale and routed their forces, which had to rally back to the protection of the Lonely Mountain.
The dwarves and men fought a pitched battle against the invaders, in which Dain and Brand, the then-King of Dale, were killed, though their forces eventually emerged victorious. The impenetrable gates and walls of the Lonely Mountain, buttressed and secured with advanced, complex, and resilient dwarven stonecraft and smithwork, easily withstood the siege equipment of the Easterlings. The Lonely Mountain itself was a key strong-point and gave its defenders great tactical leverage against the attackers, being able to shoot arrows and fling stones down below practically free of reprisal. The many years invested in improving the Lonely
Mountain's defences had paid off, and the defenders outlasted the Easterlings in the siege. The Easterlings then withdrew, suffering disproportionate casualties because of their botched campaign and the difficulty in combating dwarven technology, weapons, armor, and defenses.
The Lonely Mountain was the site of a battle during the War of the Ring. Dáin was killed during the War of the Ring and was succeeded by his son Thorin III Stonehelm, who ruled well into the Fourth Age. During this time, Dwarves from the Lonely Mountain helped rebuild cities in Gondor and the fortress of Helm's Deep, and some went to the newly established Dwarven colony in the Glittering Caves where Gimli was lord.
Portrayals in adaptations
The Hobbit film trilogy
Peter Jackson's The Hobbit trilogy (2012-2014) featured computer-generated shots of the Lonely Mountain, Dale, and other Dwarven cities.
|Foreign Language||Translated name|
|Albanian||Mal i Vetmuar|
|Belarusian Cyrillic||Адзінокая Гара (Lonely Mountain)
|Bulgarian Cyrillic||Самотна планина (Lonely Mountain)
|Cebuano||Mingaw nga bukid|
|Chinese (Hong Kong)||孤山|
|Dutch (Netherlands And Belgian)||Eenzame Berg|
|Georgian||ეული მთა (Lonely Mountain)
|Hebrew||ההר הבודד (Lonely Mountain)
|Haitian Creole||Mòn sèl|
|Hmong||Roob kho siab|
|Irish Gaelic||Sliabh Uaigneach|
|Japanese||孤独な山 (Lonely Mountain)
|Kazakh||жалғыз тау (Cyrillic) Jalğız taw (Latin)|
|Korean||외로운 산/에레보르 (Lonely Mountain)
|Kurdish||Çiya bi tenę (Kurmanji Kurdish)|
|Kyrgyz Cyrillic||жалгыз тоо|
|Macedonian Cyrillic||Осамена Планина|
|Maltese||Solitarju Muntanja ?|
|Mongolian Cyrillic||ганцаардаж уулын|
|Persian||کوه تنهایی (Lonely Mountain)
اره بور (Erebor)
|Portuguese (Brazil and Portugal)||Montanha Solitária|
|Scottish Gaelic||Aonaranach Bheinn|
|Serbian||Усамљена Планина (Cyrillic) Usamljena Planina (Latin)|
|Tajik Cyrillic||бекас Маунтин|
|Thai||ภูเขาโลนลี่ (Lonely Mountain)
|Ukrainian Cyrillic||Самотня гора (Lonely Mountain)
|Uzbek||Лонелй Моунтаин (Cyrillic) Yolg'iz tog ' (Latin)|
|Vietnamese||Ngọn Cô Độc|
|Dwarven Realms of Middle-earth throughout the Ages|
|Years of the Trees:||Amon Rûdh | Belegost | Khazad-dûm | Mount Gundabad | Nogrod | Nulukkizdîn | Blue Mountains|
|First Age:||Amon Rûdh | Belegost | Khazad-dûm | Mount Gundabad | Nogrod | Nulukkizdîn | Iron Hills | Blue Mountains|
|Second Age:||Khazad-dûm | Belegost | Nogrod | Mount Gundabad | Blue Mountains | Iron Hills|
|Third Age:||Grey Mountains | Iron Hills | Khazad-dûm | Lonely Mountain | Blue Mountains | Dunland|
|Fourth Age:||Glittering Caves | Khazad-dûm | Lonely Mountain | Blue Mountains | Grey Mountains | Iron Hills|