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[[File:Khuzdul.gif|thumb|250px|A translation chart from Khuzdul into Roman letters]]
 
[[File:Khuzdul.gif|thumb|250px|A translation chart from Khuzdul into Roman letters]]
   
'''Khuzdul''' was the [[Languages of Middle-earth|language]] of the [[Dwarves]], written with [[Cirth]] script (Runes). It appears to be structured, like real-world Semitic languages, around the triconsonantal roots: '''''kh-z-d'', ''b-n-d'', ''z-g-l'''''.
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'''Khuzdul''' was the [[Languages of Middle-earth|language]] of the [[Dwarves]], written with [[Cirth]] script (Runes). It appears to be structured, around the triconsonantal roots: '''''kh-z-d'', ''b-n-d'', ''z-g-l'''''.
   
 
==History==
 
==History==
   
The language was created by the [[Vala]] [[Aulë]], the creator of the first Dwarves, who taught them "the language he had devised for them," implying that Khuzdul is a constructed language even within context of the books.<ref>''[[The Silmarillion]]'','' [[Quenta Silmarillion]]'', Chapter II: "[[Of Aulë and Yavanna]]"</ref> The language was rarely heard by outsiders and was a secret. The [[Dark Elf]] [[Eöl]], who was a great friend and confidant of the Dwarves may have been verse in it as he regularly met with the Dwarves in the their ancient cities in the [[Blue Mountains]] during the [[First Age]], but this is not recorded.<ref>''[[The Silmarillion]]'','' [[Quenta Silmarillion]]'', Chapter XVI: "[[Of Maeglin]]"</ref> Only one saying entered recorded history, the battle-cry, ''"Baruk Khazâd! Khazâd ai-mênu!"'', meaning, ''"Axes of the Dwarves! The Dwarves are upon you!".''<ref>http://www.glyphweb.com/arda/k/khuzdul.html</ref>
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The language was created by the [[Vala]] [[Aulë]], the creator of the first Dwarves, who taught them "the language he had devised for them," implying that Khuzdul is a constructed language even within context of the books.<ref>''[[The Silmarillion]]'','' [[Quenta Silmarillion]]'', Chapter II: "[[Of Aulë and Yavanna]]"</ref> The language was rarely heard by outsiders and was a secret. The [[Dark Elf]] [[Eöl]], who was a great friend and confidant of the Dwarves may have been verse in it but this is not recorded.<ref>''[[The Silmarillion]]'','' [[Quenta Silmarillion]]'', Chapter XVI: "[[Of Maeglin]]"</ref> Only one saying entered recorded history, the battle-cry, ''"Baruk Khazâd! Khazâd ai-mênu!"'', meaning, ''"Axes of the Dwarves! The Dwarves are upon you!".''<ref>http://www.glyphweb.com/arda/k/khuzdul.html</ref>
   
 
According to the Lhammas, Khuzdul is unique in belonging to a separate language phylum, '''[[Aulëan]]''', not related to the languages of [[Elves]], which are in the '''[[Oromëan]]''' language phylum. Aulëan was named from the Dwarvish tradition that it had been devised by [[Aulë]] the Smith, the [[Vala]] who created the Dwarves.
 
According to the Lhammas, Khuzdul is unique in belonging to a separate language phylum, '''[[Aulëan]]''', not related to the languages of [[Elves]], which are in the '''[[Oromëan]]''' language phylum. Aulëan was named from the Dwarvish tradition that it had been devised by [[Aulë]] the Smith, the [[Vala]] who created the Dwarves.
   
There are many similarities between Khuzdul and the native tongues of men, such as [[Taliska]], the language of the first and third houses of the [[Edain]]. This is because in the early days of Middle-earth, before men crossed the mountains into [[Beleriand]], they had contact with the Dwarves of the [[Blue Mountains]] and further East. Taliska was the ancestor of [[Adûnaic]], the tongue of [[Númenor]], and the direct ancestor of the [[Common Speech]], and both languages still had Khuzdul influences.{{Fact}}
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There are many similarities between Khuzdul and the native tongues of men, such as [[Taliska]], the language of the first and third houses of the [[Edain]]. This is because in the early days of Middle-earth, before men crossed the mountains into [[Beleriand]], they had contact with the Dwarves of [[Erebor]] and further East. Taliska was the ancestor of [[Adûnaic]], the tongue of [[Númenor]], and the direct ancestor of the [[Common Speech]], and both languages still had Khuzdul influences.
 
Instead of 26, Khuzdul has 50 letters in its alphabet which are more like sounds than actual letters.
 
 
==Behind the scenes==
 
 
The Dwarvish language sounds much like Hebrew, and indeed Tolkien noted some similarities between Dwarves and Jews: both were "at once natives and aliens in their habitations, speaking the languages of the country, but with an accent due to their own private tongue" (''Letters'', 176). Another reason Hebrew was chosen as a basis for Khuzdul is that it is unlike any of the European languages, and thus sufficiently alien to western ears to show just how different the Dwarven speech was from the Elvish languages. Although Dwarven symbols are identical to those of Nordic Runes, the symbols that correlate to specific English letters have been mixed around and even a few Runes have been inverted.<ref>''[[The Letters of J.R.R. Tolkien]]''</ref>
 
 
For the [[The Lord of the Rings movie trilogy|''The Lord of the Rings'' movie trilogy]], the linguist [https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/David_Salo David Salo] used what little is known of Khuzdul to create a semi-complete language for use in the movies. This is usually referred to as neo-Khuzdul by Tolkienists, which is a fully usable language. In addition, there is a website known as the Dwarrow Scholar which has released a complete, fan-made dictionary of Neo-Khuzdul.
 
 
==References==
 
<references/>
 
 
[[he:קהוזדול]]
 
 
[[Category:Language]]
 
[[Category:Language]]
 
[[Category:Reading and Writing Systems]]
 
[[Category:Reading and Writing Systems]]
 
[[de:Khuzdul]]
 
[[it:Khuzdul]]
 
[[pl:Khuzdul]]
 
[[ru:Кхуздул]]
 

Revision as of 20:15, October 5, 2017

Khuzdul

A translation chart from Khuzdul into Roman letters

Khuzdul was the language of the Dwarves, written with Cirth script (Runes). It appears to be structured, around the triconsonantal roots: kh-z-d, b-n-d, z-g-l.

History

The language was created by the Vala Aulë, the creator of the first Dwarves, who taught them "the language he had devised for them," implying that Khuzdul is a constructed language even within context of the books.[1] The language was rarely heard by outsiders and was a secret. The Dark Elf Eöl, who was a great friend and confidant of the Dwarves may have been verse in it but this is not recorded.[2] Only one saying entered recorded history, the battle-cry, "Baruk Khazâd! Khazâd ai-mênu!", meaning, "Axes of the Dwarves! The Dwarves are upon you!".[3]

According to the Lhammas, Khuzdul is unique in belonging to a separate language phylum, Aulëan, not related to the languages of Elves, which are in the Oromëan language phylum. Aulëan was named from the Dwarvish tradition that it had been devised by Aulë the Smith, the Vala who created the Dwarves.

There are many similarities between Khuzdul and the native tongues of men, such as Taliska, the language of the first and third houses of the Edain. This is because in the early days of Middle-earth, before men crossed the mountains into Beleriand, they had contact with the Dwarves of Erebor and further East. Taliska was the ancestor of Adûnaic, the tongue of Númenor, and the direct ancestor of the Common Speech, and both languages still had Khuzdul influences.


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