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The Haradrim, known in Westron as the Southrons and once as "Swertings" by Hobbits, were the race of Men from Harad in the region of Middle-earth directly south of Gondor. These people were ruled by many lords, until in time Sauron corrupted them and called them to war. They were among his most notable Mannish allies in the Third Age.


In the Second Age, the Men of Númenor built a great city in the firth of Umbar, a vast natural harbor on the southern shores of the Bay of Belfalas, eventually turning the city into a fortified citadel from whose gates the Men of Númenor could levy great tributes upon many of the tribes of Harad. After the Downfall of Númenor the Black Númenóreans led by lords such as Herumor and Fuinur continued to rule the Haradrim and oppose the descendants of the Faithful.

In TA 1050 the Men of Gondor were able to subdue the Haradrim, forcing them to pay tribute and send the sons of their Chiefs as hostages to be raised in Gondor. However four hundred years later they were freed by the Kin-strife and afterwards were nearly always at war with Gondor. During the War of the Ring the Haradrim allied with Sauron and a Haradrim archer near fatally wounded Faramir as he retreated to Minas Tirith. At the Battle of the Pelennor Fields, the Haradrim cavalry and Mûmakil were a great threat to the Rohirrim that had come to aid the people of Minas Tirith. During the onslaught a Haradrim chieftain, who bore the standard of a black serpent on a scarlet field, led the Haradrim cavalry. King Théoden of Rohan slew him in single combat.[1]

After Sauron's defeat and the conclusion of the War of the Ring, newly-crowned King Aragorn II Elessar established the Reunited Kingdom. Though the Haradrim were never fully incorporated into his realm, it is said that Aragorn made peace with them.[2]


Haradrim means "South-people", from Sindarin harad ("south") and rim ("host, group").[3]

Their other names were Southerns, Southrons[3], and Swertings.

Traits and culture

The Haradrim were bold and grim men, fierce in despair. They were tall and dark-skinned with black hair and dark eyes, and for that they were called Swertings or Swarthy Men. The men of Near Harad were brown-skinned, with black hair and dark eyes, while the race known as "half-trolls" out of Far Harad had black skin.[4]

The Haradrim up-close on their war towers in the film series

Many Haradrim warriors were seen in bright clothing, such as scarlet robes, and were decorated with golden ornaments, such as collars, earrings, corsets of overlapping brazen plates; they braided their hair with gold. Some tribes painted their bodies. Scarlet and red was also the color of their banners, tips of their spears, and body paint. Their shields were yellow and black with spikes. It is also mentioned that at the end of the Second Age some of the Men in the south had weapons of iron. Red scimitars[5][6] were among their weapons.

The Haradrim had tamed the massive Mûmakil beasts and used them in warfare and, like their masters, were decorated with scarlet and gold. They even strapped towers on their backs, garrisoned by Haradrim archers and spearmen.

The Haradrim were said to be skilled horsemen, though not of prowess near to the Rohirrim. They are known to have mounted champions and archers, as well as infantry. Horses feared the Mûmakil, and so the Southron forces rallied around them when faced with mounted foes.

Harad's tribes included into those of Near and Far Harad, although there were many tribes of the Haradrim, often mutually hostile. Some of the peoples of Far Harad were organized into kingdoms.[7]

Haradrim marching through Ithilien in The Lord of the Rings: The Two Towers


To the Men of Gondor, the voices of Haradrim sounded harsh, and like "shouts of beasts".

The only word stated to be of a Southron language is "Mûmak", the name of the Oliphaunts.

Gandalf states that his name in "the south" is "Incánus", thought Inkā-nūsh (or possibly Inkā-nūs), meaning "North-spy".

Despite having a meaning in Quenya ("fate"), the name Umbar is said to be adapted from the natives' language, and not from Elvish or Adûnaic.

Portrayal in adaptations

Peter Jackson's The Lord of the Rings

Haradrim archers in their Mûmak war-towers

For Peter Jackson's The Lord of the Rings film trilogy, the Haradrim's design (by Weta Workshop) was inspired by the Aztecs and Pacific Kiribati tribes. Their bows, possibly of compound design, were made out of composite materials like antlers and wood and used bamboo arrows from leather or bamboo quivers.

The apparent leader of the Haradrim force, riding a Mûmak, is killed in the third film by Éomer instead of by Théoden.

Video games


  • In Chinese, Southrons is translated as "南蠻", which was the name of an ancient rival kingdom near China.


Foreign Language Translated name
Amharic ሓራድሪም
Arabic حارادريم
Armenian Խարադրիմ
Belarusian Cyrillic харадрым
Bengali হারাদ্রিম
Bulgarian Cyrillic харадримите
Chinese (Mainland) 哈拉德人 / 南蛮子
Chinese (Hong Kong) 哈化德林人 / 南蠻
Danish Haradrim (Sydfolket)
Georgian ჰარადრიმ
Greek Χαραδριμ
Gujarati હરદ્રિમ
Hebrew הראדרים
Hindi हरद्रिम
Japanese ハラドリム (Haradrim)

南方人 (Southrons)

Kannada ಹರಾದ್ರಿಮ್
Kazakh Һарадрім (Cyrillic) Haradrim (Latin)
Korean 하라 드리 암
Kyrgyz Cyrillic Hарадрим
Macedonian Cyrillic Харадрим
Malayalam ഹരദ്രി
Marathi हरद्रिम
Mongolian Cyrillic Hарадрим
Nepalese हरद्रिम
Pashto حارادریم
Persian حارادریم
Polish Haradrimowie
Punjabi ਹਰਦ੍ਰਿਮ
Russian Харадрим
Sanskrit हरद्रिम्
Serbian Харадрима (Cyrillic) Haradrima (Latin)
Sinhalese හරද්‍රිම්
Tajik Cyrillic Ҳарадрим
Tamil ஹரத்ரிம்
Telugu హరద్రిమ
Thai ฮาราดริม
Ukrainian Cyrillic Гарадрім
Urdu حرضوید
Uzbek Ҳарадрим (Cyrillic) Haradrim (Latin)
Yiddish האַראַדרים
The People of Middle-earth

Edain | Dúnedain | Númenóreans | Haradrim | Easterlings | Variags | Northmen | Dunlendings | Drúedain | Lossoth

Vanyar | Ñoldor | Teleri | Sindar | Nandor | Avari

Durin's Folk | Firebeards | Broadbeams | Ironfists | Blacklocks | Stonefoots | Stiffbeards


  1. The Lord of the Rings, The Return of the King, Book Five, Chapter VI: "The Battle of the Pelennor Fields"
  2. The Lord of the Rings, The Return of the King, "The Steward and the King"
  3. 3.0 3.1 Parma Eldalamberon, Words, Phrases and Passages in Various Tongues in The Lord of the Rings by J.R.R. Tolkien
  4. The Lord of the Rings, The Return of the King, Book Five, Ch. VI: "The Battle of the Pelennor Fields
  5. The Lord of the Rings, The Return of the King, Book Five, Ch. IV: "The Siege of Gondor", pg. 821 (50th Anniversary One-Volume Edition)
  6. The Lord of the Rings, The Return of the King, Book Five, Ch. VI: The Battle of the Pelennor Fields, pg. 839 (50th Anniversary One-Volume Edition)
  7. J.R.R. Tolkien, The Two Towers, Of Herbs and Stewed Rabbit