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Harad lay between the sea of Umbar to its west, and Khand to its northeast, and was divided into two main provinces: Near Harad, which was the closest to both Mordor and Gondor, and Far Harad, nearest to the land of Umbar. Harondor, otherwise known as South Gondor, was a buffer zone in the very north of Harad between the lush, verdant grasslands on Gondor's side of the Anduin and the inhospitable dunes of sand to the far south, and was contested over by Gondor and Harad. Harondor's climate was most likely a semi-arid grassland but presumably more fertile than Haradwaith's.
The boundary between Near Harad and Khand is not described, and it is unclear how far east Near Harad extended. The majority of Near Harad is desert, described by Gollum as where the "yellow face is bright and terrible". In the southeast of Near Harad, a natural gulf fed far into the landmass, and a large river flowed inland from there to the northwest, later forking. One branch of the river flowed westwards towards Umbar, and the other northeast. Neither the gulf nor the rivers were given names by Tolkien.
The boundary between Near and Far Harad is indistinct, but compared to the other regions of Middle-earth Far Harad was immense, with likely an extremely varied climate. Much of the southern extents of Far Harad were covered in forests and jungle. The great Mûmakil, called Oliphaunts in legend by the Hobbits, were native to this area. The Mûmakil were rarely seen outside of Far Harad after the Third Age.
- Main article: Haradrim
Harad's tribes were divided (at least in the minds of the men of north-western Middle-earth) into those of Near and Far Harad, although there were many tribes of the Haradrim, often mutually hostile. Those of Near Harad were swarthy, with black hair and dark eyes, whereas the people of Far Harad had black skin.
After the First Age, the men of these lands were among the lesser men who were instructed by the voyaging Númenóreans in the basic arts of civilization. This went on for some time until the middle of the Second Age when the Númenóreans turned their backs on wisdom and became their overlords.
From the latter part of the Second Age, many of the Men of Harad were dominated by the Númenóreans, as were many other peoples whose lands included a coastline. Shortly before the War of the Last Alliance, two Númenórean lords, named Herumor and Fuinur, "rose to great power amongst the Haradrim", but their ultimate fate is not recorded.
For the first millennium of the Third Age, many Haradrim were still ruled by Black Númenórean Lords. However the power of the Black Númenóreans was broken in TA 1050 by King Hyarmendacil I of Gondor and the Haradrim brought under the overlordship of Gondor. Following the Kin-strife this hold was broken and war resumed until the Haradrim were again defeated a century later by Hyarmendacil II. In the 19th century of the Third Age the Haradrim gained possession of Umbar itself, mounting further invasions of Gondor in TA 1944 and TA 2885. Ultimately Harad fell under the influence of Mordor for much of the Age.
Much of Far Harad was a jungle, although there also was a desert. In Far Harad lived the great beasts known as Mûmakil or Oliphaunts native to Far Harad used by the Haradrim as moving war towers.
Near Harad later formed an alliance or maybe even a coalition of some sort with the Corsairs of Umbar, and was involved in a series of continual battles with Gondor over South Gondor or Harondor, with Gondor claiming the river Harnen as it's southern border and the Haradrim claiming the Poros as their northern border. By the time of the War of the Ring all the land south of the river Poros was under the influence of the Haradrim and they sent large forces to aid in the Siege of Gondor.
After the revival of the Reunited Kingdom of Gondor and Arnor in the Fourth Age, many of the Haradrim were pardoned and allowed to live in peace. They were required to relinquish South Gondor and Umbar, but remained a free people.
Portrayal in adaptations
- In The Lord of the Rings: The Battle for Middle-earth II, warriors from Harad are prominently featured.
- Harad and its surroundings are depicted in The Lord of the RIngs Minecraft mod. The region is significantly fleshed out with original content.
|Foreign Language||Translated name|
|Chinese (Hong Kong)||哈化德林 , or simply translated to 哈德|
|Kazakh||Харад (Cyrillic) Xarad (Latin)|
|Serbian||Харад (Cyrillic) Harad (Latin)|
|Uzbek||Ҳарад (Cyrillic) Harad (Latin)|
|Amon Ereb • Brethil • Dor-lómin • Estolad • Ladros • Rhûn • Harad • Eriador|
|Arnor • Dunland • Gondor • Harad • Númenor • Rhûn • Umbar • Eriador|
|Arnor (later split into Arthedain, Cardolan, and Rhudaur) • Rohan • City of Dale (later became a Kingdom) • Dunland • Lake-town (later part of the Kingdom of Dale) • Gondor • Harad • Khand • Kingdom of Rhovanion • Rhûn • Umbar • Vales of Anduin • Greenwood the Great • Eriador|
|Kingdom of Dale • Dunland • Harad • Núrn • Reunited Kingdom of Gondor and Arnor • Rohan • Rhûn • Eryn Lasgalen • Khand • Eriador • Rhovanion • Vales of Anduin|
Forests & Mountains:
The rest of Arda:
- Parma Eldalamberon, Words, Phrases and Passages in Various Tongues in The Lord of the Rings by J.R.R. Tolkien