During the Quest for Erebor in TA 2941, Thorin's Company took shelter in the cave, unaware of its use by goblins. At night, Bilbo Baggins noticed a crack in the back of the cave opening up, and, realizing too late that it was a trap, Bilbo and the dwarves were captured by the goblins and taken to Goblin-town.
Portrayal in adaptations
In Peter Jackson's The Hobbit: An Unexpected Journey, the company bunks in the Front Porch to take shelter from the rain, after encountering a pair of Stone Giants. Bilbo waits until the rest of the company is asleep, and having decided to return to Rivendell, attempts to quietly leave. He is halted by Bofur, though the dwarf allows him to continue. As Bilbo prepares to leave, however, the ground of the cave them begins to open up. The dwarves fall into Goblin-town, and land in a large pit, where the goblins capture them.