The Éothéod ("horse-land") was a former land in far northwest Rhovanion, where dwelt Eorl and ancestors of the Rohirrim in the second millennium of the Third Age. The term Éothéod also refers to the people themselves.
In the mid Third Age, the Northmen of Rhovanion were invaded and enslaved by the Wainriders. A number of refugees fled west to the vale of Anduin and became known as the Éothéod. Although the Wainriders were destroyed, the threat of Dol Guldur led the Éothéod, led by Frumgar, to migrate north from the plains south of Mirkwood to the confined area between the rivers Langwell and Greylin, sources of the Great River Anduin, near where the Grey Mountains met the Misty Mountains. They came there after the fall of Angmar, driving out the remaining Orcs and remaining settled for five centuries, at which point their numbers were beginning to make their small domain crowded.
Some time later their lord Fram, son of Frumgar, slew the dragon Scatha. The Éothéod capital was named Framsburg in his honour. Fram's son Léod was killed trying to tame the horse Felaróf, first of the Mearas. His son Eorl the Young tamed the horse, taking it into service as compensation for his father's life.
During the rule of Steward Cirion, Gondor faced an attack by the Balchoth, and he sent messengers to the Éothéod capital. Eorl answered the call for help, and rode out with most of his horsemen, leaving only a few warriors behind to protect his people. The Riders arrived just in time to assist the army of Gondor at the Field of Celebrant, and after defeating the enemy, Cirion asked the Éothéod to watch over the depopulated province of Calenardhon, a plain far away from Éothéod in the south near the White Mountains. This land was given by the Steward three months later as a gift to Eorl and his people, and Eorl swore an Oath of eternal friendship with Gondor in return. Messengers were sent north, and people of Eorl completely removed to the plains of Calenardhon.
The Éothéod settlers renamed themselves the Eorlingas ("followers of Eorl"), but in Sindarin they became known as the Rohirrim, or Horse-lords, and their country became known as Rohan, the Riddermark.
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